CRMtex is an extension of CIDOC CRM created to to describe ancient texts and other semiotic features appearing on inscriptions, papyri, manuscripts and other similar supports. The model is designed to describe in a formal way the phenomena related to the production, use, conservation, study and interpretation of textual entities, in order to support the study of ancient documents by identifying relevant textual entities and by modelling the scientific process related with the investigation of ancient texts and their features.

CRMtex is intended to identify and define in a clear and unambiguous way the main entities involved in the study and edition of ancient handwritten texts and then to describe them by means of appropriate ontological instruments in a multidisciplinary perspective.

The full compatibility of CRMtex with the CIDOC CRM ontology and its extensions ensures persistent interoperability of data encoded by means of its entities with other semantic information produced in cultural heritage and digital humanities.

CRMtex entities deal closely with textual and intertextual structures and try to deepen the close relationships existing between fragments of text or sequences of signs and the underlying meaning they were originally intended to convey.

CRMtex has its sceintific foundation in the semiotic aspects of language and text; the core concept of our model is thereforethe notion of “text” as the product of a semiotic process involving an encoding (“writing”) and a decoding (“reading”) process. Writing is in turn a particularly sophisticated human technology allowing the encoding of a linguistic message through a series of signs specifically selected for this purpose. In this semiotic perspective, a “written text” is constituted by a number of signs physically traced (i.e., written) on a specific support and intended to encode a linguistic expression.

Because of their non-mechanised origin, ancient texts are unique and unrepeatable entities; in addition, along with their support, they form an inextricably linked, unique object of study.

CRMtex provides specific entities to describe all these phenomena and, being an extension, takes advantage of the power of CIDOC CRM and its other extensions to describe general, non-textual information (i.e., actors, places, objects, temporal entities, observations, archaeological contexts and so forth).



- Felicetti, A., Murano, F. 2022. «La modellazione semantica delle entità testuali». Umanistica Digitale 11: 163–75.

- Felicetti, A., Murano, F. 2021. «‘Ce qui est écrit et ce qui est parlé’. CRMtex for Modelling Textual Entities on the Semantic Web». Semantic Web 12 (2): 169–180.

- Felicetti, A., Murano, F. 2017. «Scripta Manent: A CIDOC CRM Semiotic Reading of Ancient Texts». International Journal on Digital Libraries 18 (4): 263–270.



- CRMtex v. 1.0 – Definition of the CRMtex. An Extension of CIDOC CRM to Model Ancient Textual Entities, ed by Martin Doerr, Francesca Murano and Achille Felicetti.


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